[演讲]哈佛亚洲商业会议张瑞敏演讲原文

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02/17/201405:27:427.9K 次浏览1

文章摘要:作为世界五百强企业之一的海尔集团,其首席执政官自然会频繁出现各种国际高端会议中,哈佛亚洲商业会议在上海浦东金茂大厦隆重举行时,海尔集团张瑞敏就做过精彩演讲:

 

Eric Harwit:下面演讲的是海尔的总裁张瑞敏。

 

张瑞敏:女士们、先生们早上好。非常高兴能够参加今天这个年会,我想在这个会议上我讲两点我自己的体会,也是现在中国企业非常关注或者比较困惑的两个问题。一个就是说加入WTO之后中国的企业,特别是中国的家电企业的定位和方向,第二个就是中国企业如何实施国际化战略。

 

我想第一个问题是所有中国企业必须回答的问题,就是说过去我们的定位和方向都是以国内市场为主,现在我觉得我们的定位应该以国际市场为主,我们的方向应该以能够参与国际市场的竞争为主。我想提出这个问题,就是说不是你想不想做的问题,也不是你能不能做的问题,而是你必须要做,如果要不做就没有生存的余地。因为加入WTO之后,突然发生一个非常大的变化,就是两个一体化,一个是国内、国外市场一体化,一个是国内、国外竞争对手一体化。其实我们说还没有做好参赛的准备,这个大赛已经在我们面前。比如说我们还没有获得奥运会参赛的资格,但是奥运会顶级的选手已经到我们国内来了。

 

今天在座的四位诺基亚、索尼、飞利浦、柯达的高层,今天我们在同台演讲,其实我们要同台竞争。但是我怎么和他们竞争呢?他们都是老师级。我高中刚刚毕业,还没有上大学,怎么和他竞争?但是他又不是奥运会,非常公平,不够参赛资格就不要参赛,这个不管,你参赛不参赛他都要和你竞争。

 

20年前我开始创办这个企业的时候,飞利浦在我脑海里是一个神,那时候我们是个什么企业呢?只是有六百人的小的街道工厂,而且我当时工作的时候,有半年的时间每个月到处借钱开工资。那时候我进工厂给他们制定的第一个规章制度,就是不准在车间里随地大小便。象飞利浦、诺基亚这些超级大企业,他们会想这些情况吗?但是今天我必须要参与这个竞争,因此我想说的第二个问题,就是说在这种情况下,中国的企业怎么来实施国际化的战略?我想国家提出中国企业要实施走出去的战略,但是我认为中国的企业应该把走出去变成三部曲,第一应该是走出去,第二应该是走进去,第三应该是走上去。我想打个比方说,走出去就像一个人走出国门,出去学学人家的先进经验,或者是留学,或者是做生意,这个应该叫走出去。但是这个远远不够,你应该走进去,就好比一个人,我在那获得一个绿卡,我成为当地一个居民,我觉得这个应该是走进去。最后应该说是走上去,这才是目的,也就是说我进入到当地的主流社会,我能够为当地作出贡献,而且受到当地民众的欢迎。

 

我想第一个问题:靠什么走出去?很多人都认为中国企业要走出去靠的就是中国廉价的劳动力、低廉的成本,我觉得这是中国走出去一个优势,但在今天已经绝对不是一个唯一的优势了,因为所有到中国来的跨国大公司,他们都可以获得和你同样低廉的成本。所以我觉得走出去,除了这个优势之外,你必须要和别人有差异化的优势。这个差异化就是能够在当地树立起信誉,或者具体地说把这个信誉体现在名牌上,如果没有名牌,你只能停留在给人家做打工仔的层面上,而且加工费非常低,你不可能有利润,也不可能再发展。

 

所以我们和中国其他企业采取了不同的战略,我们采取先难后易,先到发达国家再到发展中国家去。而中国一般企业认为,中国企业竞争力不行,先到东南亚国家去再到发达国家去,但是我们恰恰相反,为什么?我说我在发达国家能够经受住这个考验,能够参与这个竞争,再到发展中国家去没有问题。所以这是我们取得的两个比较突出的成果。第一个就是我们现在是中国家电企业出口量当中自有品牌最多的。第二个就是我们的出口可以良性快速增长。今年上半年我们就比去年同期增长了100%,也就是说半年超过了去年全年的出口。

 

第二个问题就是说在这个走出去的基础上怎么样走进去,成为当地的一个企业。99年的时候,我们在美国南卡州建立一个工厂,当时受到很多质疑。媒体有一篇文章题目就是五个字“提醒张瑞敏”,为什么要提醒我呢?中国还没有任何一个企业在美国办工厂成功,你凭什么能成功?当时我想提醒晚了,再提醒早一点,我就不去了。但是没有办法,已经去了,所以第一年、第二年亏损,现在可以慢慢地不亏损了。但是现在没有这么质疑了,该我质疑他们了,因为中国去年是受到反倾销投诉最多的国家。因为光停留在国内生产出口这条路子,肯定走不通。但仅仅是进入到当地设立工厂还不够,还必须进入到当地大流通当中去。所以我们在美国的要求必须进到美国十大电器连锁店,现在我们已经全部进去了。上个月7月5号,美国家居杂志一条消息,海尔和哈瑞特合作在美国曼哈顿哈瑞特广场搞了一次活动,这个活动的结果就是七个小时卖掉了七千台空调。这个消息转载到国内之后也是一片质疑,不可能,绝对不可能,在中国也不可能卖这么多空调。后来人家就问,平均起来一分钟卖掉16台,怎么可能呢?但是我告诉他,这是商业秘密,我也不能告诉你。那么最重要的,我认为走进去还不是这点,走进去还必须走到用户心里去,让用户认同你。现在我认为这点做的比较好,我现在海外22个工厂,但是有九个工厂没有我一分钱投资,却还愿意给我做,因为我有很多定单,人家认同我这个品牌,我有很多订单,他有很多生产能力,我就让他来给我做加工。

 

最后一点,走出去、走进去,最后的目的必须是走上去,也就是说在当地完全被认同,成为当地的一个名牌。我们提出一个叫做三融一创,就是当地融资、当地融智,当地融文化,怎么使我们的文化和当地文化结合到一起?最后的目的就是一创,就是创出当地消费者认同的一个世界名牌。这个其实非常困难,我在德国的时候参加一个晚宴,有一位公司大经理的太太也去了,我问她,你知不知道海尔?她说知道,在德国有卖的。我说你会不会买?她说我不会,我一定会买米乐。我说为什么?她说米乐对于我来讲已经不是一件电器了,它是一件艺术品。所以这是我想到的,就像人一样,两个人差不多长的非常好,学历非常高,但是总归是甲比乙要强,为什么呢?因为他气质不一样。现在海尔到国外去就属于这种,非常努力,但是气质不行。怎么解决?我想用户要买的一定不是产品,一定是一个解决方案。如果我们给你创造需求,我能够提供你所想要的东西,解决你的问题,我一定会成功。比如说在美国,我们在美国创造一个酒柜,过去在美国酒柜只在两种地方,一种是在大的房子或者在地窖里放,还有一种是放在公寓里,把酒柜放到厨房里,但是我们开发了一个客厅式酒柜。这就满足了很多中产阶级的需求,一下子变成一个很大的市场。但是这个市场好比说我不在你原来的蛋糕切一块,而是我自己做了一个蛋糕,我可以自己独享这个蛋糕。当然现在很多竞争对手都跟进,都来做这个市场,即便这样,我们还是占了这个市场份额的一半以上。在进入日本市场的时候,大家都知道日本是一个家电强国,也是一个家电的出口国,日本国民对外国品牌很难认同,所以我们就想办法怎么样使日本人民认同外面的品牌。唯一的办法就是做的比你更好,或者你没有的东西。在日本的洗衣机一般都是波轮式的,实际上就是三种洗衣机,日本的波轮式,欧洲滚筒式,美国是搅拌式。

 

谢谢大家。

 

Abstract: as the world's top five hundred enterprises of the Haier Group, its chief executive, will naturally appear frequently in various high-end international conference, Harvard Asia business conference in Shanghai Jinmao Tower in Pudong is held ceremoniously, Haier Group Zhang Ruimin did a wonderful speech:

 

Eric Harwit: the following speech is Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

 

Zhang Ruimin: Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Very glad to attend this annual meeting, I think at this meeting I speak at my own experience, is now the China enterprise pays close attention to very much or more confusing two problems. One is that after joining WTO, Chinese enterprises, especially for Chinese home appliance enterprises positioning and orientation, second are Chinese enterprises on how to implement the internationalization strategy.

 

I think the first problem is that all Chinese enterprises must answer the question, that is the past our position and direction are mainly to the domestic market, now I think we should locate to the international market, our direction should be able to participate in the competition of the international market mainly. I want to ask this question, is not you want to do, nor can you do the problem, but you must do, if be no room for survival. Because after the accession to the WTO, suddenly a very big change, is the integration of two, is a domestic, foreign market integration, is a domestic, foreign competitors integration. In fact, we say that is not ready for the contest entries, is in front of us. For example, we have not obtained the Olympic qualifying games, but top players have to our country.

 

Today four Nokia, Sony, Philips, Kodak high-rise, today we are in one speech, but we want to compete. But how can I compete with them? They are the teacher class. I just graduated from high school, not on the University, how to compete with him? But he is not the Olympics, very fair, insufficient qualification not participating, this matter, you run your he will compete with you.

 

20 years ago I started this business, Philips in my mind is a God, then we what business? Just six hundred small street plant, and I was working, half the time everywhere to borrow money paid each month. When I entered the factory for them to develop the first rules, is not in the shop anywhere. Like Philips Nokia, the super big business, they will think of these situations? But today I have to participate in this competition, so I want to say second questions, that is in this case, Chinese enterprise how to carry out the strategy of internationalization? I think the country proposes that Chinese enterprises should implement the strategy of going out, but I think that the Chinese enterprises should go into a trilogy, the first is to go out, second should be entered, third should be to go up. I want to say, go out like a person out of the country, go out and learn their advanced experience, or study abroad, or to do business, this should be called out. But this is far from enough, you should go in, it is as if a man, where I get a green card, I become a local resident, I think this should be walked in. Finally, should saying is to go up, this is the purpose, that is to say me into the local mainstream society, I can for local contributions, but also by the local people welcome.

 

I think the first problem: what to rely on to go out? Many people think that Chinese enterprises to go out is on China's cheap labor, low cost, I think this is China going out an advantage, but today has not a unique advantage, because all of the large multinational companies to come to China, they can get and you too low cost. So I think going out, in addition to the advantages, you must have the advantage of poor dissimilation. The difference is in the local establish credibility, or specifically the reputation reflected on famous brand, if not famous, you can only stay in others do employee's level, and the processing cost is very low, you may not have a profit, nor is it possible to develop.

 

So we and other Chinese enterprises adopt different strategies, we take the first easy, first to the developed countries to developing countries. China general enterprise thinks, Chinese enterprise competitiveness not, first to the Southeast Asian countries to go to developed countries, but on the contrary, why? I said I in developed countries can withstand the test, can participate in the competition, and then to the developing countries to have no problem. So this is what we made two more outstanding achievements. The first is that we have now is enterprise of Chinese home appliance exports, its own brand most. Second is the outlet can be benign and rapid growth. The first half of this year we have more than the same period last year increased by 100%, that is to say half over the last year the export.

 

Second problems that the go on the basis of how to go in, become a local enterprise. In 99 years, we in the United States, South Carolina to build a plant, was then subjected to a lot of questions. The media has an article entitled five words" to remind Zhang Ruimin", why to remind me? China has not any enterprise in the United States of America do factory successfully, what you can be successful? I want to remind late, again a bit earlier, I would not go. But there is no way, has gone, so the first year, second years of deficit, can now slowly without loss. But there is no such questions, I questioned them, because China is subjected to anti-dumping complaints than any other country. Because only in domestic production and export this way, must go. But was only accessible to the local factories is not enough, must also be entered into the local circulation. So we in the United States must be into the American ten big electrical appliances chain stores, now we have all been in. Last July 5th, the United States of America home furnishing a news magazine, Haier and Harriet cooperation in the United States Manhattan Harriet square had a activity, this activity is the result of seven hours to sell seven thousand air conditioning. This message is reproduced to home after is a question, not, never, in China is not likely to sell so many air conditioning. Later someone asked, on average one minute to sell 16 units, how likely? But I told him, this is the commercial secrets, and I can't tell you. So the most important, I think it is not that went in, went in also must go to the user to allow the user to identify with your heart. Now I think it to do better, I now 22 overseas factories, but there are nine factories without me a penny investment, but also willing to give me, because I have a lot of orders, they agree with me this brand, I have many orders, he has a lot of production capacity, I let him come to me to do the processing.

 

Finally, go, go, the final purpose is to go to, that is to say in local fully accepted, become a local famous brand. We present a called the three into a record, is the local finance, local agents, local culture, how to make our culture and local culture together? The final purpose is a noninvasive, is a local consumer recognition of a world famous brand. This is very difficult, I in Germany when attending a dinner party, a company manager 's wife also went, I asked her, did you know that Haier? She says that, in Germany has sell. I said, will you buy? She said that I will not, I will certainly buy music. I said why? She said music for me is not an electronics, it is a work of art. So this is what I thought, like people, two individual difference as long is very good, degree is very high, but it is a better than B, why? Because of his temperament. Haier to go abroad now belongs to this, very hard, but temperament. How to solve? I want the user to buy certain is not a product, must be a solution. If we give you create needs, I can provide what you want, you solve the problem, I will succeed. For example, in the United States in the United States, we create a wine cooler, in past years in the United States cabinet in only two place, one is in the big house or in the cellar, and one is placed in the apartment, put the wine in the kitchen, but we developed a living room type wine cabinet. This will meet a lot of demand for middle class, turned into a big market. But the market is like saying I am not your original cake cut in one piece, but I made a cake, I can be myself this cake. Now many of our competitors to follow, to make the market, even so, we still hold the market share of more than half of. Entering the Japanese market, we all know that Japan is a household appliance power, is a household appliances export country, Japanese countryman to foreign brands is difficult to identify, so we want to measure how the Japanese people outside of the brand identity. The only way is to do better than you, or something you are not. In Japan, the washing machine is generally a wave wheel, is actually three kinds of washing machine impeller, Japan, European roller, the United States is stirring type.

 

Thank you.

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